Travel Advisory from the US State Department

Norwegian webservers


THE CIA WORLD FACTBOOK 1994 (Oct 28, 1994)

                                  Norway
  
  
                                 Geography
  
Location:
     Nordic State, Northern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean,
     west of Sweden
Map references:
     Arctic Region, Europe, Standard Time Zones of the World
Area:
total area:
     324,220 sq km
land area:
     307,860 sq km
comparative area:
     slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
     total 2,515 km, Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km, Russia 167 km
Coastline:
     21,925 km (includes mainland 3,419 km, large islands 2,413 km, long
     fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 16,093 km)
Maritime claims:
contiguous zone:
     10 nm
continental shelf:
     to depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone:
     200 nm
territorial sea:
     4 nm
International disputes:
     territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); dispute between
     Denmark and Norway over maritime boundary in Arctic Ocean between
     Greenland and Jan Mayen has been settled by the International Court of
     Justice; maritime boundary dispute with Russia over portion of Barents
     Sea
Climate:
     temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder
     interior; rainy year-round on west coast
Terrain:
     glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile
     valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords;
     arctic tundra in north
Natural resources:
     petroleum, copper, natural gas, pyrites, nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead,
     fish, timber, hydropower
Land use:
arable land:
     3%
permanent crops:
     0%
meadows and pastures:
     0%
forest and woodland:
     27%
  
  
other:
     70%
Irrigated land:
     950 sq km (1989)
Environment:
current issues:
     water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting
     lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
natural hazards:
     NA
international agreements:
     party to - Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air
     Pollution-Sulphur, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds,
     Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity,
     Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification,
     Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer
     Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber, Wetlands, Whaling;
     signed, but not ratified - Law of the Sea
Note:
     about two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much indented
     coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in
     North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world;
     Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with Russia
  
                                  People
  
Population:
     4,314,604 (July 1994 est.)
Population growth rate:
     0.39% (1994 est.)
Birth rate:
     13.32 births/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Death rate:
     10.44 deaths/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Net migration rate:
     1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1994 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
     6.3 deaths/1,000 live births (1994 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:
     77.38 years
male:
     74.02 years
female:
     80.94 years (1994 est.)
Total fertility rate:
     1.81 children born/woman (1994 est.)
Nationality:
noun:
     Norwegian(s)
adjective:
     Norwegian
Ethnic divisions:
     Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic), Lapps (Sami) 20,000
  
  
Religions:
     Evangelical Lutheran 87.8% (state church), other Protestant and Roman
     Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)
Languages:
     Norwegian (official)
note:
     small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Literacy:
     age 15 and over can read and write (1976 est.)
total population:
     99%
male:
     NA%
female:
     NA%
Labor force:
     2.004 million (1992)
by occupation:
     services 39.1%, commerce 17.6%, mining, oil, and manufacturing 16.0%,
     banking and financial services 7.6%, transportation and communications
     7.8%, construction 6.1%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 5.5%
     (1989)
  
                                Government
  
Names:
conventional long form:
     Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form:
local long form:
     Kongeriket Norge
local short form:
     Norge
Digraph:
     NO
Type:
     constitutional monarchy
Capital:
     Oslo
Administrative divisions:
     19 provinces (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder,
     Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland,
     Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane,
     Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas:
     Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Independence:
     26 October 1905 (from Sweden)
National holiday:
     Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Constitution:
     17 May 1814, modified in 1884
  
  
Legal system:
     mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law traditions;
     Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked;
     accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Suffrage:
     18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state:
     King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince
     HAAKON MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973)
head of government:
     Prime Minister Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND (since 3 November 1990)
cabinet:
     State Council; appointed by the king in accordance with the will of
     the Storting
Legislative branch:
     unicameral Parliament (Storting)
Storting:
     elections last held on 13 September 1993 (next to be held September
     1997); results - Labor 37.1%, Center Party 18.5%, Conservatives 15.6%,
     Christian Peoples' 8.4%, Socialist Left 7.9%, Progress 6%, Left Party
     3.6%, Red Electoral Alliance 1.2%; seats - (165 total) Labor 67,
     Center Party 32, Consevatives 18, Christian Peoples' 13, Socialist
     Left 13, Progress 10, Left Party 1, Red Electoral Alliance 1,
     unawarded 10
Lagting:
     Storting elects one-fourth of its member to upper house
Judicial branch:
     Supreme Court (Hoyesterett)
Political parties and leaders:
     Labor Party, Thorbjorn JAGLUND; Conservative Party, Jan PETERSEN;
     Center Party, Anne ENGER LAHNSTEIN; Christian People's Party, Kjell
     Magne BONDEVIK; Socialist Left, Eric SOLHEIM; Norwegian Communist,
     Ingre IVERSEN; Progress Party, Carl I. HAGEN; Liberal, Odd Einar
     DORUM; Finnmark List, leader NA; Left Party; Red Electoral Alliance
Member of:
     AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE,
     EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
     IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
     IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NAM (guest), NATO, NC, NEA, NIB,
     NSG, OECD, ONUSAL, PCA, UN, UNAVEM II, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
     UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNMOGIP, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNTAC, UNTSO, UPU, WEU
     (associate), WHO, WIPO, WMO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in US:
chief of mission:
     Ambassador Kjeld VIBE
chancery:
     2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:
     (202) 333-6000
FAX:
     (202) 337-0870
consulate(s) general:
     Houston, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco
  
  
consulate(s):
     Miami
US diplomatic representation:
chief of mission:
     Ambassador Thomas A. LOFTUS
embassy:
     Drammensveien 18, 0244 Oslo 2
mailing address:
     PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone:
     [47] 22-44-85-50
FAX:
     [47] 22-43-07-77
Flag:
     red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
     the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side
     in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
  
                                  Economy
  
Overview:
     Norway has a mixed economy involving a combination of free market
     activity and government intervention. The government controls key
     areas, such as the vital petroleum sector (through large-scale state
     enterprises) and extensively subsidizes agriculture, fishing, and
     areas with sparse resources. Norway also maintains an extensive
     welfare system that helps propel public sector expenditures to
     slightly more than 50% of the GDP and results in one of the highest
     average tax burdens in the world (54%). A small country with a high
     dependence on international trade, Norway is basically an exporter of
     raw materials and semiprocessed goods, with an abundance of small- and
     medium-sized firms, and is ranked among the major shipping nations.
     The country is richly endowed with natural resources - petroleum,
     hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals - and is highly dependent on
     its oil sector to keep its economy afloat. Although one of the
     government's main priorities is to reduce this dependency, this
     situation is not likely to improve for years to come. The government
     also hopes to reduce unemployment and strengthen and diversify the
     economy through tax reform and a series of expansionary budgets. The
     budget deficit is expected to hit a record 8% of GDP because of
     welfare spending and bail-outs of the banking system. Unemployment
     continues at record levels of over 10% - including those in job
     programs - because of the weakness of the economy outside the oil
     sector. Economic growth was only 1.6% in 1993, while inflation was a
     moderate 2.3%. Oslo, a member of the European Free Trade Area, has
     applied for membership in the European Union and continues to
     deregulate and harmonize with EU regulations. Membership is expected
     in early 1995.
National product:
     GDP - purchasing power equivalent - $89.5 billion (1993)
National product real growth rate:
     1.6% (1993)
National product per capita:
     $20,800 (1993)
  
  
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
     2.3% (1993 est.)
Unemployment rate:
     5.5% (excluding people in job-training programs; 1993 est.)
Budget:
revenues:
     $45.3 billion
expenditures:
     $51.8 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1993)
Exports:
     $32.1 billion (f.o.b., 1993)
commodities:
     petroleum and petroleum products 40%, metals and products 10.6%, fish
     and fish products 6.9%, chemicals 6.4%, natural gas 6.0%, ships 5.4%
partners:
     EC 66.3%, Nordic countries 16.3%, developing countries 8.4%, US 6.0%,
     Japan 1.8% (1993)
Imports:
     $24.8 billion (c.i.f., 1993)
commodities:
     machinery and equipment 38.9%, chemicals and other industrial inputs
     26.6%, manufactured consumer goods 17.8%, foodstuffs 6.4%
partners:
     EC 48.6%, Nordic countries 25.1%, developing countries 9.6%, US 8.1%,
     Japan 8.0% (1993)
External debt:
     $6.5 billion (1992 est.)
Industrial production:
     growth rate 6.2% (1992); accounts for 14% of GDP
Electricity:
capacity:
     26,900,000 kW
production:
     111 billion kWh
consumption per capita:
     25,850 kWh (1992)
Industries:
     petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper
     products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing
Agriculture:
     accounts for 3% of GDP and about 6% of labor force; among world's top
     10 fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value of crops; over half
     of food needs imported; fish catch of 1.76 million metric tons in 1989
Illicit drugs:
     transshipment point for drugs shipped via the CIS and Baltic states
     for the European market
Economic aid:
donor:
     ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion
Currency:
     1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 oere
Exchange rates:
     Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 7.4840 (January 1994), 7.0941
     (1993), 6.2145 (1992), 6.4829 (1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989)
  
  
Fiscal year:
     calendar year
  
                              Communications
  
Railroads:
     4,223 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Norwegian State Railways (NSB)
     operates 4,219 km (2,450 km electrified and 96 km double track); 4 km
     other
Highways:
total:
     88,800 km
paved:
     38,580 km
unpaved:
     gravel, crushed stone, earth 50,220 km
Inland waterways:
     1,577 km along west coast; 2.4 m draft vessels maximum
Pipelines:
     refined products 53 km
Ports:
     Oslo, Bergen, Fredrikstad, Kristiansand, Stavanger, Trondheim
Merchant marine:
     764 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,793,968 GRT/35,409,472 DWT,
     bulk 159, cargo 92, chemical tanker 85, combination bulk 8,
     combination ore/oil 28, container 17, liquefied gas 81, oil tanker
     162, passenger 13, passenger-cargo 2, railcar carrier 1, refrigerated
     cargo 13, roll-on/roll-off cargo 54, short-sea passenger 21, vehicle
     carrier 28
note:
     the government has created a captive register, the Norwegian
     International Ship Register (NIS), as a subset of the Norwegian
     register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of convenience
     and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians; the majority of ships
     (761) under the Norwegian flag are now registered with the NIS
Airports:
total:
     103
usable:
     102
with permanent-surface runways:
     65
with runways over 3,659 m:
     0
with runways 2,440-3,659 m:
     13
with runways 1,220-2,439 m:
     15
Telecommunications:
     high-quality domestic and international telephone, telegraph, and
     telex services; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; 3,102,000 telephones;
     broadcast stations - 46 AM, 350 private and 143 government FM, 54
     (2,100 repeaters) TV; 4 coaxial submarine cables; 3 communications
     satellite earth stations operating in the EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (1
     Atlantic Ocean), MARISAT, and domestic systems
  
  
  
                              Defense Forces
  
Branches:
     Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air Force, Home
     Guard
Manpower availability:
     males age 15-49 1,119,405; fit for military service 932,438; reach
     military age (20) annually 30,557 (1994 est.)
Defense expenditures:
     exchange rate conversion - $3.1 billion, 3.2% of GDP (1993)
  
  
Back to the main page.


borrel@hiof.no